Submitted: 04 Nov 2020
Revised: 13 Dec 2020
Accepted: 22 Dec 2020
First published online: 30 Dec 2020
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Int J Enteric Pathog. 2020;8(4):142-146.
doi: 10.34172/ijep.2020.29
  Abstract View: 288
  PDF Download: 238

Original Article

Contamination of Water Sources of Karaj Hospitals with Legionella pneumophila and Campylobacter jejuni

Niloofar Ghomimaghsad 1, Somayeh Yaslianifard 2, Mohammad Mohammadzadeh 2, Masoud Dadashi 2, Mohammad Noorisepehr 3 * ORCiD

1 Student Research Committee, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
2 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Dietary Supplements and Probiotic Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
3 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Mohammad Noorisepehr, Address: 1st Golestan, Eshteraki Street, Baghestan Boulevard, Karaj, Iran. Tel: +989123344072 Email: Email: dr.noorisepehr@


Background: One of the most common routes of infection development in humans is contaminated water. Legionella pneumophila and Campylobacter jejuni are the important causes of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia and gastroenteritis that are transmitted to humans via the inhalation of contaminated water droplets and consumption of contaminated water, respectively. Thus, continuous monitoring of the water supply systems for these pathogens has great importance in public health.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the water contamination of Karaj hospitals with these two bacterial species.

Materials and Methods: In this study, 62 water samples were obtained from different parts of the hospitals of Karaj from April to September 2019, including air conditioning systems, dialysis equipment, ventilation tanks, and different wards of a hospital such as infectious diseases, pediatrics, gastroenterology, dialysis, and intensive and neonatal intensive care units. The samples were collected in sterile containers and immediately transferred to the laboratory for further analysis. The culture on specific media, staining, and biochemical tests were performed to identify the L. pneumophila and C. jejuni.

Results: Out of 62 water samples, 25.8% (16 samples) were positive for L. pneumophila; 68.75% were observed in hot water samples, and 31.25% were attributed to cold water samples. Among 62 samples, 4.84% (3 samples) were positive for C. jejuni, which were all detected in hot water samples.

Conclusion: Considering that the methods of water refinery of municipal water have no high efficiency, the quality improvement of the water sources of hospitals seems to be necessary.

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